In the last two hundred years there have been great changes in the method of production of goods. This is now also true of the building industry; for mechanization has been introduced. System building can save both time and money. The principle of system building is that the building is made from a set of standard units. These are either made at the building-site or at a factory. Some designers, in fact, are standardizing the dimensions of rooms. They are made in multiples of a single fixed length, usually ten centimeters. This is called a modular (标准件的) system, and it means that manufactures can produce standardized fittings at a lower cost. The most important fact about system building is its speed. A ten-storey flat, for example, can be completed in four months.
There are several new methods of system building. One is the panel method. In this case, the construction company sometimes erects a factory on the site. The walls and floors of the building, called panels, are cast in a horizontal or vertical position. Conduits for electrical wires and sleeves for pipes are cast in the panels when they are being made. The moulds for making these castings are situated all around the building.
After the concrete panels are cast, they are allowed to set and harden for a week. Next they are lifted by a tower crane on to any section of the building. There the panels are cemented together at their joints and the floor covering is laid.
After the panels have been cemented together, the crane lifts a case into the area. It contains all the fittings to be installed, such as wash-basins, radiators and pipes. Finishing tradesmen, such as plumbers, plasterers, painters and electricians, follow behind to complete the work.
In some building developments, in some countries, whole flats with internal features like their bathrooms, bedrooms and connecting stairs, and weighing as much as twenty tons, are carried to the building-site ready-made. A giant overhead crane is used to lift them into position. In the future, this method may become more widespread.
1. Which of these statements is TRUE of system building?
A. It employs more men.
B. It is difficult and dangerous.
C. It can save both time and money.
D. It means less mechanization.
2. The main difference between panel method and the method discussed in the last paragraph is_______.
A. the latter uses ready-made internal features
B. panels are cast in a level position
C. the former is used to build walls and floors while the latter to construct bathrooms or bedrooms
D. the former is more expensive than the latter
3. According to the passage, the principle of system building is that_______.
A. construction methods are safer
B. buildings are made from a set of standardized units
C. similar buildings can be produced
D. all units are produced on the site
4. What lifts the concrete panels onto the building?
D. Hydraulic jacks.
5. The usual fixed length in the modular system is_______.
A. twenty centimeters
B. ten millimeters
C. fifty centimeters
D. ten centimeters
1. C 2.A 3. B 4. A 5. D
We sometimes think humans are uniquely vulnerable to anxiety, but stress seems to affect the immune defenses of lower animals too. In one experiment, for example, behavioral immunologist (免疫学家) Mark Laudenslager, at the University of Denver, gave mild electric shocks to 24 rats. Half the animals could switch off the current by turning a wheel in their enclosure, while the other half could mot. The rats in the two groups were paired so that each time one rat turned the wheel it protected both itself and its helpless partner from the shock. Laudenslager found that the immune response was depressed below normal in the helpless rats but not in those that could turn off the electricity. What he has demonstrated, he believes, is that lack of control over an event, not the experience itself, is what weakens the immune system.
Other researchers agree. Jay Weiss, a psychologist at Duke University School of Medicine, has shown that animals who are allowed to control unpleasant stimuli don’t develop sleep disturbances or changes in brain chemistry typical of stressed rats. But if the animals are confronted with situations they have no control over, they later behave passively when faced with experiences they can control. Such findings reinforce psychologists’ suspicions that the experience or perception of helplessness is one of the most harmful factors in depression.
One of the most startling examples of how the mind can alter the immune response was discovered by chance. In 1975 psychologist Robert Ader at the University of Rochester School of Medicine conditioned (使形成条件反射) mice to avoid saccharin (糖精) by simultaneously feeding them the sweetener and injecting them with a drug that while suppressing their immune systems caused stomach upsets. Associating the saccharin with the stomach pains, the mice quickly learned to avoid the sweetener. In order to extinguish this dislike for the sweetener, Ader reexposed the animals to saccharin, this time without the drug, and was astonished to find that those mice that had received the highest amounts of sweetener during their earlier conditioning died. He could only speculate that he had so successfully conditioned the rats that saccharin alone now served to weaken their immune systems enough to kill them.
1. According to the passage, the experience of helplessness causes rats to ________.
A) try to control unpleasant stimuli
B) turn off the electricity
C) behave passively in controllable situations
D) become abnormally suspicious
2. Laudenslager’s experiment showed that the immune system of those rats who could turn off the electricity ________.
A) was strengthened
B) was not affected
C) was altered
D) was weakened
3. The reason why the mice in Ader’s experiment avoided saccharin was that ________.
A) they disliked its taste
B) it affected their immune systems
C) it led to stomach pains
D) they associated it with stomachaches
4. It can be concluded from the passage that the immune systems of animals ________.
A) can be weakened by conditioning
B) can be suppressed by drug injections
C) can be affected by frequent doses of saccharin
D) can be altered by electric shocks
5. The passage tells us that the most probable reason for the death of the mice in Ader’s experiment was that ________.
A) they had been weakened psychologically by the saccharin
B) the sweetener was poisonous to them
C) their immune systems had been altered by the mind
D) they had taken too much sweetener during earlier conditioning
1.C 2.B 3.D 4.A 5.C
2014年12月大学英语六级模拟练习：The land of Disney
I live in the land of Disney， Hollywood and year-round sun. You may think people in such a glamorous， fun-filled place are happier than others. If so， you have some mistaken ideas about the nature of happiness.
Many intelligent people still equate happiness with fun. The truth is that fun and happiness have little or nothing in common. Fun is what we experience during an act. Happiness is what we experience after an act. It is a deeper， more abiding emotion.
Going to an amusement park or ball game， watching a movie or television， are fun activities that help us relax， temporarily forget our problems and maybe even laugh. But they do not bring happiness， because their positive effects end when the fun ends.
I have often thought that if Hollywood stars have a role to play， it is to teach us that happiness has nothing to do with fun. These rich， beautiful individuals have constant access to glamorous parties， fancy cars， expensive homes， everything that spells “happiness”。 But in memoir after memoir， celebrities reveal the unhappiness hidden beneath all their fun： depression， alcoholism， drug addiction， broken marriages， troubled children and profound loneliness.
Ask a bachelor why he resists marriage even though he finds dating to be less and less satisfying. If he‘s honest， he will tell you that he is afraid of making a commitment. For commitment is in fact quite painful. The single life is filled with fun， adventure and excitement. Marriage has such moments， but they are not its most distinguishing features.
Similarly， couples that choose not to have children are deciding in favor of painless fun over painful happiness. They can dine out ever they want and sleep as late as they want. Couples with infant children are lucky to get a whole night‘s sleep or a three-day vacation. I don’t know any parent who would choose the word fun to describe raising children.
Understanding and accepting that true happiness has nothing to do with fun is one of the most liberating realizations we can ever come to. It liberates time： now we can devote more hours to activities that can genuinely increase our happiness. It liberates money： buying that new car or those fancy clothes that will do nothing to increase our happiness now seems pointless. And it liberates us from envy： we now understand that all those rich and glamorous people we were so sure are happy because they are always having so much fun actually may not be happy at all.
1.To the author， Hollywood stars all have an important role to play that is to __.
A.rite memoir after memoir about their happiness.
B.tell the public that happiness has nothing to do with fun.
C.teach people how to enjoy their lives.
D.bring happiness to the public instead of going to glamorous parties.
2.Which of the following is true?
A.Fun creates long-lasting satisfaction.
B.Fun provides enjoyment while pain leads to happiness.
C.Happiness is enduring whereas fun is short-lived.
D.Fun that is long-standing may lead to happiness.
3.In the author‘s opinion， marriage___.
A.affords greater fun.
B.leads to raising children.
D.ends in pain.
4.If one get the meaning of the true sense of happiness， he will__.
A.stop playing games and joking with others.
B.make the best use of his time increasing happiness.
C.give a free hand to money.
D.keep himself with his family.
5.Couples having infant children___.
A.are lucky since they can have a whole night‘s sleep.
B.find fun in tucking them into bed at night.
C.find more time to play and joke with them.
D.derive happiness from their endeavor.
1.B 2.C 3.C 4.B 5.D