百喻经之八山羌偷官库衣喻

来源: 浣氬悕 2014-09-12

中小学英语学习必备APP

  A RUSTIC STEALS CLOTHES FROM THE PALACE TREASURY

  过去之世,有一山羌,偷王库物而远逃走。尔时国王遣人四出推寻,捕得将至王边,王即责其所得衣处。山羌答言:“我衣乃是祖父之物。” 王遣著衣,实非山羌本所有故,不知著之,应在手者,著於脚上,应在腰者,返著头上。

  Once upon a time there was a rustic who stole garments from the palace and then escaped to a remote place. The king sent men to search for him in all directions. Finally, he was arrested and taken to the king who accused him of theft and asked him where he had got the clothes. The rustic answered that they belonged to his grandfather. The king then ordered him to put them on. He did not know how to wear them. He put on his arms what should be worn on his legs. What he ought to have on his waist, he put on his head.

  王见贼已,集诸臣等,共详此事,而语之言:“若是汝之祖父已来所有衣者,应当解著,云何颠倒,用上为下?以不解故,定知汝衣必是偷得,非汝旧物。”

  Seeing this, the king summoned his ministers for consultation on the matter. "If the clothes belonged to your grandfather, you should know how to wear them. How can you wear them in all wrong ways? It's certain that they are not your old clothes. You have stolen them," said the king.

  借以为譬:王者如佛,宝藏如法,愚痴羌者,犹如外道。

  Figuratively speaking, here the king is like Buddha; the valuable clothes, the Buddhist teachings; the stupid rustic, the heretic.

  窃听佛法,著己法中,以为自有。然不解故,布置佛法,迷乱上下,不知法相。

  A heretic, who has eavesdropped on Buddhism, makes it for his own. He then misinterprets it, because he does not know the real meaning of its teachings.

  如彼山羌,得王宝衣,不识次第,颠倒而著,亦复如是。

  This heretic is like the rustic who stole the king's valuable clothes without knowing how to wear them properly and put them on in all the wrong ways.

  注释:

  ①山羌:居住在山林之中,以猎、牧为生的人。

  ②推寻捕得:推寻,打探寻找;捕得,追捕到。

  ③法:佛教的重要理论范畴。原始佛教认为:法是贯穿于物质世界和精神世界的规律,一切物质世界的现象和人的精神、意识都是法的表现。宇宙间的一切现象既是瞬息万变的,又是统一的、互相联系的。人的认识的根本目的就在于通过自己精神的“反观内照”来认识法,从而得到真正的精神解脱。传说中佛陀在菩提树下的成正觉,即大彻大悟的智慧,就是认识了法,从而获得了彻底解脱的认识。但“法”这一理论范畴并非创自佛教,佛教借用了“法”这个范畴,并赋予了新的含义,使之成为支配自然现象以及人类精神活动的普遍规律。佛典中所谓“法建世间”的含义充分表现了“法”的重要意义。

  ④法相:主要有六种含义,分别是指:各种法的特质;对事物的观念;诸法的差别与形态;现象存在的形态;事物存在的形态;现象界的事物。本文指一切事物的真实形态,诸法的本性,即真理的特质。参见《维摩经》、《法华玄义》,罗什译《小品般若》等。

  ⑤次第:等次、位次,本文指使用的方法。

  白话:

  很久以前,有一位居住在山林的人,偷了国王仓库的东西后逃到了远方。国王知道后,立即派人四处打探寻找,捕获了山民,把他带到国王面前。国王马上追问山民衣物的来源。山民回答:“这衣服是我祖父留给我的。”国王让他把衣服穿好。由于衣服确实不是他的,所以不知道怎样穿。应该穿戴在手上的,却套在了脚上,应当扎在腰上的,却围在了头上。国王见了,确定是贼无疑,召集大臣讨论这件事,并说:“如果是你祖父留给你的衣物,你应熟悉这些衣物的穿法,为什么上下颠倒,戴在手上的却穿在脚下?所以不会穿,在于你的衣服肯定是偷来的,而不是你原有的衣物。”

  借这个故事作比喻:国王好比佛陀,国库的财产好比自然与认识的规律。愚蠢无知的山民,像其他各种思想派别,听到一些佛教的教义,就认为已经掌握了认识自然与现象的规律,自以为是,但并不能理解它的实质,就妄加断言,思维逻辑颠倒,不认识一切事物的真实形态、本性,以及真理的本质意义。这好像山民,得到国王的衣物,不懂怎么使用,上下颠倒地穿戴的道理一样。

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