In the past twenty years, there has been an increasing tendency for workers to move from one country to another, ___1___ some newly independent countries have understandably restricted most jobs to local people, others have attracted and welcomed migrant workers. This is particularly the case in Middle East,1 ____2___ increased oil incomes have enabled may countries to _____3____ outsiders to improve local facilities. _____4____ the Middle East has attracted oil-workers from the U.S.A. and Europe. It has brought in construction workers and technicians from many countries, ____5____South Korea and Japan.
In view of the difficult living and working conditions in Middle East,2 it is not _____6_____ that the pay is high to attract suitable workers. Many engineers and technicians can earn at least _____7_____ money in the Middle East as they can in their own country, and this is a major attraction. An allied benefit is the low taxation or complete lack of it.3 This increases the net amount of pay received by visiting workers and is very popular with them.
Sometimes a disadvantage has a compensating advantage. _____8_____, the difficult living conditions often lead to increased friendship when workers have to depend on each other _____9_____ safety and comfort. ____10____, many migrant workers can save large sums of money partly ____11___ the lack of entertainment facilities. The work is often complex and full of problems but this merely presents greater challenge to engineers who prefer to find solutions ______12______ problems rather than do routine work in their home country.
One major problem which ____13_____ migrant workers in the Middle East is that their jobs are temporary ones. They are nearly always on contract, so it is not easy for them to plan ahead with great confidence. This is to be expected since no country welcomes a large number of foreign workers as permanent residents. _____14____, migrant workers accept this disadvantage, along with others, because of the ____15___ financial benefits which they receive.
1. A) As B) Since C) While D) Although
2. A) which B) where C) when D) there
3. A) call in B) call off C) call up D) call on
4. A) But B) Moreover C) Besides D) Thus
5. A) include B) includes C) including D) included
6. A) surprised B) surprisingly C) surprise D) surprising
7. A) twice as much B) twice as many
C) as much as twice D) as many as twice
8. A) Similarly B) As a result C) For example D) Anyway
9. A) with B) for C) about D) in
10. A) On the contrary B) In a similar way
C) On the other hand D) Consequently
11. A) because of B) on C) because D) with
12. A) in B) about C) for D) to
13. A) effects B) affects C) detects D) reflects
14. A) In case B) In all cases C) In a case D) In any case
15. A) considerable B) considerate C) considered D) considering